What is Chanukah?
Hanukkah, Chanukah or the Festival of Lights is a Jewish holiday celebrated for eight days around late November to late December. The name is derived from a Hebrew word meaning “to dedicate,” and during Hanukkah, the Jewish people commemorate the re-dedication of the Temple in Jerusalem and the “Miracle of The Oil.”
The Talmud says that after the Temple had been liberated by the Maccabees from Antiochus IV, only a day’s worth of consecrated olive oil was left to fuel the eternal flame. Miraculously, it remained burning for eight days, which was just enough time to make more of the oil.
Hanukkah 2014 began in the evening of Tuesday, December 16 and ends in the evening of Wednesday, December 24. We light one candle each night of the festival using a menorah.
Hanukkah food is considered to be quite decadent as most are deep fried and use a lot of oil, representing the “Miracle of The Oil.” There are a whole lot of foods which are served on Hanukkah, from beef briskets to noodle puddings and cookies, but the most popular are potato pancakes called latkes or levivot and jelly doughnuts called sufganiot.
In my Tunisian traditions, we eat of course yoyos, deep fried caky beignets, farka on the 6th day of Chanukah as we celebrate the festival of the girls or “fete des filles”, and not really latkes… but I love this recipe below
A favourite game of children and adults alike on the Festival of Chanukah is playing with a Dreidel (in English – top, in Hebrew – sevivohn). This delightful game has an ancient history. The Dreidel has four letters from the Hebrew alphabet, imprinted on each of its sides. In Israel the letters are Nun, Gimel, Hay, and Pay, which stands for Nais Gadol Hayah Poh — a great miracle happened here. Outside of Israel the letters are Nun, Gimmel, Hay, and Shin, which stands for Nais Gadol Hayah Shahm — a great miracle happened there.
The game is played by distributing to all participants either nuts, chocolates, or Chanukah Gelt (coins). Everyone places a coin in the middle and someone spins the Dreidel. If the Dreidel stops showing Nun, he neither wins nor loses. If Gimmel, he wins the entire pot. If Hay, he gets half the pot. If Shin, he must put one in the pot.
The game then continues with the next person taking his turn, and so on around the circle until someone has won everything. It is of course nice to distribute plenty of consolation prizes so that everyone can go home a winner!
Where did this wonderful game originate? Truth be told, it was a game of life or death. The Greek Syrians had become a progressively more oppressive occupying force. At first they felt they would convert the Jewish population to their pagan ways through being kind and gentle with the Jews. Much to their chagrin the Jews remained steadfastly committed to their own religion (aside from a small percentage who became Hellenized).
Frustrated by their lack of success the powerful regime passed a series of laws outlawing the study of Torah as a religious work. They additionally outlawed many types of ritual commandments like circumcision and Shabbat observance. The Jews were compelled to take their Torah learning “underground,” for they knew, a Jew without Torah is like a fish out of water.
In order to disguise their activity the Children of Israel had to resort to learning Torah in outlying areas and forests. Even this plan was not foolproof, for the enemy had many patrols. The Jews therefore brought along small tops that they would quickly pull out and play with after secreting away their texts, so that they could pretend to be merely playing games.
This ruse did the trick, and the unbroken tradition of Torah scholarship thankfully remained intact!